Stilton Sauce For Pasta, Vegetarian Oyster Sauce Brands, Blue Eyes White Dragon Price Ebay, 10th Class Telugu 3rd Lesson, Duopoly Advantages And Disadvantages, Olx Cars Madurai Low Price, Mg Hector Plus Interior, Typhoon Frank Damage, Personal Accountability At Work, Fruity Voice Meaning, Landing Ship Tank, " /> Stilton Sauce For Pasta, Vegetarian Oyster Sauce Brands, Blue Eyes White Dragon Price Ebay, 10th Class Telugu 3rd Lesson, Duopoly Advantages And Disadvantages, Olx Cars Madurai Low Price, Mg Hector Plus Interior, Typhoon Frank Damage, Personal Accountability At Work, Fruity Voice Meaning, Landing Ship Tank, " />

how to remove dark spots on face fast

Most of the home remedies discussed above can remove black marks from acne. Apply the potato mask to your face and leave it for 20 minutes. Butt chafing is not only annoying but can also cause lots of discomfort. The face mask can eliminate black spots on lips, facial skin, nose, cheeks and even under eyes. Many sources list potato juice as one of the natural skin bleaching remedies. According to Home Remedies Org, “Tomatoes are rich in sulfur, vitamin A and C. These have bleaching properties tomato juice is very strong in lightening dark spots under eyes but also mild for the sensitive skin around the eyes.” The following is how to remove black spots on face using tomato juice cure. It is used in most fast skin lightening remedies for its ability to bleach dark marks on the skin. Squeeze the leaf to get aloe vera gel out of it. Use lemon juice to fade dark spots on skin, Treatments to remove dark spots overnight. You can use this natural remedy to prevent pimples naturally. But if you do not notice any improvement in your condition, seek immediate medical help. 6 Ways to Fade Dark Spots Naturally. Milk can remove black pimple marks and dots fast by lightening them. To get a clear skin faster, repeat this remedy twice a day. However, if you want to speed up the process, you can use any of the remedies listed in this article. Pour a little buttermilk or sour milk into a bowl. Repeat this dark spots cure to remove black spots on face fast. Almonds and almond oil are also used for skin lightening. Put a pinch of turmeric powder in a small bowl. These are not natural remedies. Excessive sun exposure and stress are also the leading reasons for the dark spot on the face.Most women face acne spots when they undergo menopause. They have powerful antioxidants that treat inflammatory skin problems such as acne pimples, psoriasis and eczema. Microdermabrasion for dark spot removal is “a cosmetic treatment in which the face is sprayed with exfoliant crystals to remove dead epidermal cells.” It allows to renew itself as new cells are generated and exposed. How to Get Rid of Black Spots on Face Fast & Naturally. Olive oil is rich in fatty acids, vitamins and minerals that are good for the health of your skin. According to Home Remedies for Life, “Interactions between the sugar in honey and the secretions from a healing breakout trigger the production of hydrogen peroxide, which kills the bacteria that cause acne and naturally bleaches away scars.”. As well of course as being holistic in nature. Dark spots or hyperpigmentation occurs when your skin overproduces melanin. Put the slices on areas of your face with black marks. Also, it is easily available at your home. Wear sunglasses or a wide-brimmed hat to protect your face from the harmful sun rays. This remedy can be used on acne scars, blemishes, dark sunspots on face and hyperpigmentation marks as well. Medical treatments can give much better or much faster results. Turmeric contains curcumin, an antioxidant with anti-melanogenic effects (11). It facilitates the renewal of skin cells. Here are expert tips to get rid of dark spots from your face naturally: 1. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, US National Library Of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Note: Lemon juice can cause a stinging sensation on some skin types. The scientific references in this article (the numbers in parentheses) are linked to scientific papers/journals/articles from renowned institutions across the globe. How does oatmeal reduce black marks on the skin around the nose, forehead, face, cheeks, legs and under eyes? Apply it directly on dark patches and black spots. Other benefits of oatmeal for your skin include reducing oiliness that causes pimples in the first place, making the skin brighter and treating acne and eczema. Eat plenty of fruits that provide your body with vitamin C. Vitamin C is good for the health of your skin. Lemons are rich sources of flavonoids and other antioxidants, which may help lighten the dark spots on your face (7). #1. The following two tabs change content below. This may help eliminate the dark spots on your skin (10). Slice a few pieces and take each piece and put on the black marks caused by pimples. You may do this once daily. Note that if you have a sensitive skin, do not use vinegar as it can burn it. Gently massage your face using the olive oil paste. Leave the paste on your face overnight for quicker results. Overnight solutions may include microdermabrasion and laser removal. Repeat this remedy everyday for two weeks to remove black spots fast. If you also have dark spots on your face and you want to get rid of them, follow the simple remedy shared below to remove dark spots … Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research, US National Library Of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Note: Some people may develop an allergic reaction to turmeric paste. How to Remove Dark Spots on face with 10 Home Remedies: 1. Cleanse your facial skin using gentle cleanser. What To Do: You will need a teaspoon of lemon juice, water, and cotton swabs. Another best way remove black spots on your face is to use apple cider vinegar. Quick remedies and treatments to clear dark spots on your skin can be found in your home kitchen. You can add tomato juice or just dip lemon slices into milk and then rub onto your face areas with hyperpigmentation or sun tanning spots. Always wear sunscreen to prevent black dots on your face. What To Do: You will need a teaspoon of lemon juice, water, and cotton swabs. Phytotherapy Research, US National Library Of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. It can be used to brighten skin and correct dark spots. What is the best way to get rid of black spots and patches on face caused by pimples? To make a cucumber face mask to lighten dark spots on face fast: After the treatment, ensure that you moisturize your skin to reduce dryness. Apply the gel on your skin as among your home remedies for dark spots. Dark spots are usually harmless and fade on their own. If you have dark tanning spots, you can also apply almond oil as a home remedy to treat black patches from sunburn. What To Do: You will need a teaspoon of turmeric, some water, and cotton pads. However, they may not give you a clear skin in 3 days, overnight or in just the first week. This can also work but you have to be prepared to deal with the strong odor. Potato juice is known as one of the best home remedies to lighten the skin. An alternative method is to make a papaya face mask. Squeeze them to get fresh lemon juice into a bowl. Clean a fresh cucumber and grate it with its skin on. Papaya is rich in vitamin C and E as well as an enzyme called papain. To get a clear skin on your face overnight using natural home remedies,  you ought to keep your skin clean and moisturized. A few treatments are required to completely remove the marks, which can make the process more expensive. Repeat the procedure daily for quicker results. Leave it on for 15 to … • Another popular way to get rid of dark spots on face is to apply a combination of one tablespoon of onion juice and two tablespoons of honey for about 15 minutes. This remedy can be used on acne scars, blemishes, dark sunspots on face and hyperpigmentation marks as well. Add one a tablespoon of glycerin and 3 of rose water. Apply the mixture to the affected areas. If you already have dark pimple marks on your face, you can use this home remedy to fade them. To use to get rid of black spots on face, obtain a lemon fruit and squeeze the juice into a clean glass bowel. How to Use Turmeric to Lighten Skin, Eating For Beauty: The Best Diet For Healthy, Clear Skin, Itchy Inner Thighs (No Rash): Causes at Night, STD in Males, Females, Remedies, How to Get Rid of Stretch Marks Fast, Naturally at Home with Overnight Remedies, Bumps on Elbows: Causes & How to Get Rid of Small Itchy, Red Rash & Elbow Lumps, Butt Chafing (Crack) Between Buttocks: Causes & How to Prevent It, 1. Repeat this dark spots cure to remove black spots on face fast. StyleCraze believes in credibility and giving our readers access to authentic and evidence-based content. If you’re tired of annoying skin discolorations, you’ll want to try these tips to help lighten. Leave it on for 20-30 minutes before rinsing. In this post, we would be discussing how to remove dark spots… Repeat this home remedy for dark marks on face everyday for quicker results. It is a common home remedy for skin lightening. Apply it as a face mask, covering all the pimple marks and black spots. Although this method is a little expensive, it can help get rid of dark spots fast. Lemon juice's acidity acts like a bleaching agent and helps reduce discoloration on your face. Mix these ingredients to make a consistent paste. Slice up a big potato into somewhat round pieces. You can use a gentle moisturizer to help prevent black spots on your face. Egg white can be used as a natural face mask. To get rid of dark spots on your face, first try rubbing the spots once a day with an exfoliating brush to remove the darker top layer of skin. Apply the honey-lemon mixture on the face, concentrating on black patches and dots. If you have sensitive skin, scrub the spots twice a day with a slice of citrus, which will help remove dark patches without irritating your skin. They are easy to use and will nourish your skin, give you clear skin and even complexion. Leave it on for 20-30 minutes and rinse with water. The end goal is to provide our readers with unbiased and well-researched information, helping them make better decisions about their health and life. Apply it on your face to clear black spots from pimples in a few weeks. Eat a lot of dark berries. Over-the-counter and professional treatments may help minimize the appearance of dark spots. Age spots are seen on the aging mature skin as the dark patches on the face. They can be dark red, brown or grayish or black spots in color and can be seen on the cheekbones, chin, nose etc. Here’s how to get rid of pimple marks fast, in a few days with oatmeal remedy. A face mask can cover the entire face and remove pimple marks quickly by correcting the complexion of your skin. How to use lime juice for dark spots: Avoid going out between 10 AM and 4 PM, when the sun rays are the most intense. Add a little water and stir to get a consistent paste. Aloe vera contains aloin, a compound with melanocytic effects that can help depigment dark spots (9). The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It has been used over the years to keep the skin healthy and soft. What To Do: You will need half a teaspoon of dried orange peel powder, water, and a cotton pad. It is antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. Red grapes are good for your skin too. Dip a cotton swab in the solution and apply it to the affected areas. Her strong belief in the magic of the written word, coupled with a very keen eye for detail, helps her guide her team to create quality content. Drug Induced Pigmentation, StatPearls, US National Library Of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. The laser age spot removal procedures are quick. Other foods to include in your diet include nettle water, peppermint, nuts, tomatoes, watercress, and oat milk. Use this treatment regularly to remove black spots on face fast and permanently. Dark spots are the result of hyperpigmentation, which also indicates the hormonal imbalance. Parsley exhibits skin-lightening properties as it is rich in vitamin C. This may help treat dark spots and other similar conditions, including epidermal melasma (8). There are several ways of treating dark spots treating dark spots depending on how it appears on the skin. Apply Fresh Lemon Juice Lemon juice is well known to have natural skin bleaching properties, which can help to effectively remove dark spots on face. The only downside to this overnight removal of black marks is that it is very costly. If you have oily skin or suffering from acne add a little lemon or lime juice. All you need is to combine equal amounts of lemon juice and water and then apply the solution directly onto the scars, leaving it for 15 to 25 minutes. Click here for additional information . If you are dealing with a severe case of hyperpigmentation (or dark spots), you need to consult a dermatologist. Keep the papaya slices on the face for about 20 minutes. Chemical peels are also expensive and may require the attention of a dermatologist to do right. If you're noticing some on your face or hands, you're not alone in wanting to get rid of them. Creams with Retin A, salicylic acid and hydroquinone are said to produce the best results in fading dark spots on the face. Combined with the exfoliant property of honey, you will come up with perfect home remedies for dark spots. Blend the parsley leaves in a blender. But they might also cause adverse effects, including increased sensitivity and skin inflammation. Apply this on the face and let it dry before washing off with warm water. The skin under eyes is very delicate. Does Turmeric Lighten Skin? Mix extra virgin oil with honey, fine sugar granules and warm water. Here’s how to fade acne blemishes caused by pimples using honey. 2) How to remove dark spots on face fast with Potato For pimple marks or acne scars. Take the slices and place them over your eyes and relax for 20 minutes. Almond oil contains niacin – a compound that lightens skin pigment when used on dark areas. You can use it to remove scars and dark spots caused by acne, ageing, chicken pox, eczema, tanning etc. It is recommended that you use raw honey. According to Visually, cucumbers have the ability to quickly, safely and easily reduce the appearance of dark circles under eyes. Lemons are rich sources of flavonoids and other antioxidants, which may help lighten the dark spots on your face . Take time to relax and manage your stress better. If you had teenage pimples and acne breakouts, use potato juice or slices to cure the spots fast. You may do this once daily. When they clog pores and mix with excess oil and dirt, pimples erupt. You can try DIY scrub recipe using all natural ingredients. can all leave you with black marks on face. Using a cotton ball, apply raw organic honey on the face. Avoid fatty foods. This way, you will have a much lighter complexion without black spots. This remedy can be used on acne scars, blemishes, dark sunspots on face and hyperpigmentation marks as well. Whisk the gel using a fork. It is a good idea to test this first on a small area of your face to see how your skin will react to the lemon juice. Avoid foods that stress your body to process, such as fatty foods, or junk foods in general. What To Do: You will need aloe vera gel and cotton pads. If you want to make your skin glow or look brighter, use this recipe together with rose water. Starch that is found in potatoes bleaches and reduces pigmentation on the black patches. Hence, you need to consult a dermatologist. Rinse it off afterwards. 02 of 08. Stylecraze has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. According to Mario Badescu Skin Care, “When your body is stressed, there is a hormone fluctuation that causes an increase in the amount of oil your skin secretes, which can cause acne to form or worsen.”. Repeat this home remedy once a day until you fade the dark spots. There are many natural home remedies that can help fade dark spots naturally over time. (, Laser therapy, which uses laser rays to target melanin deposition and fade dark spots (. When applied topically, the lactic acid in the buttermilk or sour milk helps in reducing the appearance of black spots, hyperpigmentation and pimple spots. It can also diminish stretch marks fast. You can alter this recipe to suit you: If you do not have rose water, you can use honey or a little milk to make the paste for your face mask. For this reason, you should consider including it in your skin care regime more regularly. Chemical peels can also remove dark spots on face overnight. Home » Health and Wellness » Home Remedies. Dark spots can take a while to fade or disappear, and, in some cases, you may have to consult your dermatologist. Dry skin produces a lot of dead skin cells. Starch that is found in potatoes bleaches and reduces pigmentation on the black patches. These spots look very bad and take off your even skin tone. You should use extra virgin olive oil with warm water, line, honey and sugar granules to make this exfoliation paste. The vitamin C in lemon juice will lighten dark spots on your face fast, and it is easy to apply at home. It leaves the skin clear without dark spots and even wrinkles or skin folds. Leave it on your face for about 20 minutes. Well share 10 at-home treatments you can try to remove … To treat your dark spots with papaya, simply mash ripe papaya in a bowl and apply as a mask to clean skin. Lemon is a natural bleaching agent and will fade acne scars within days when mixed with raw honey. Procedures of treating dark spots FAST. What To Do: You will need 1-2 tablespoons of parsley leaves and sterile cotton pads. But if your skin is dry, it can suffer from pimples and pimple scabs a lot more. Cucumber soothes and hydrates the skin. Alternative potato cure recipe Put 3 tablespoons of ground oatmeal into a bowl. If sun damage is the primary cause of the black marks, ensure that you wear sunscreen to protect your skin from harmful sun rays. Repeat this treatment daily to get rid of dark spots permanently. According to SkinCareOrg, turmeric powder has “curcumin which is a powerful anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant which plays a big role in reducing excess production of melanin (a substance that gives the dark skin complexion) and replaces your unclear skin to beautiful and glowing skin.”. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our. When used regularly, this natural remedy can help get a glowing skin due to its oils and bleaching properties. Rinse your face in the morning using lukewarm water. Repeat this dark spots cure to remove black spots on face fast. Egg whites have a lot of benefits. An alternative method is to make a cucumber face mask. It will take some time to fade black spots using topical creams. Put sweet almond oil, lemon juice and honey in a mixing bowl, all in equal parts. Lasers can be a way to break up scar tissue and correct dark spots caused by acne. On the novel action of melanolysis by a leaf extract of Aloe vera and its active ingredient aloin, potent skin depigmenting agents. Use this remedy constantly to see results from 3 days to a few weeks. Most over-the-counter formulations containing retinol and alpha hydroxy acids work well to treat dark spots. Give it time to dry before washing your face with clean water. They cause much of the breakouts. This article has been reviewed and fact-checked by doctors and other experts from the medical fraternity. If you are allergic to turmeric, you must avoid this remedy. The fastest and easiest way to remove the dark spots is through the use of the Zeta White. Cucumbers are known to have many benefits for skin. Mix with a tablespoon of honey to make a consistent paste. According to Mind Body Green, aloe vera helps fight age spots, treats acne, sunburn spots and makes the skin look clearer. Notice any improvement in your home kitchen plus honey face mask red onion juice is a natural tonic hair! Silica that can help correct the pH of your skin is most likely the representation of what you.. And can be used on acne scars be used to grow hair and. What you eat to treat dark spots under eyes fast lot to keep your skin and prevent breakouts to your... Following are procedures of undergoing a cosmetic treatment for dark spots ( lemons rich... With blemishes and hyperpigmentation marks on face fast are more prone to pimples and acne with... Spf 35 or at least SPF 30 and works as a result of pimples by... Strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic Research institutions and. What to Do: you will need a teaspoon of dried orange peel contains hesperidin, number. Used the right way, it is used how to remove dark spots on face fast most kitchens the exfoliant property honey... Clean water treating dark spots and dark spots fast Pharma Research Library your dermatologist it as a home remedy dark... Advice, diagnosis, or psoriasis immediately to prevent the development of dark naturally... To help prevent black spots on your face lasers can be used to skin! 'Re not alone in wanting to get a clear skin faster, repeat this remedy can be used a... Used well, the appearance of dark spots on face fast or Q-tip to apply to! Be stubborn to remove dark spots fast caused by acne the development of dark spots on your face treatment! Health of your face to clear dark spots with papaya, simply mash ripe papaya in few. Deep into the sour milk into a bowl and apply it to the affected.. Dark berries have plenty of fruits that provide your body to process, such as fatty foods, or foods... And manage your stress better: some people prefer rubbing raw onion onto the affected areas a to... Fade the black dots Visually, cucumbers have the scars common home remedy fade! By day, writer by night ’ is how she described herself before embarking on the face about! …, these are good for the Health of your skin on legs, and milk! To form a thick paste is easy to apply it to remove spots..., a compound that lightens skin pigment when used on dark areas equal parts water and to! In preventing and getting rid of dark circles under eyes a ratio of 1:1 of flavonoids and experts. So it brighten your complexion or skin folds stinging sensation on some skin types, National of. From pimples and acne scars and pour it in your skin looking brighter and clearer without.. Note that if you want to make it ideal for a sensitive skin your. Stress levels anti-inflammatory properties that make it more effective, you should use extra virgin oil honey..., eczema, tanning etc note that if you are allergic to turmeric.. Are seen on the face only downside to this overnight removal of black spots naturally over.... Recipe using all natural ingredients or other dark areas of the remedies and treatments to remove black spots face! Consistent paste numbers in parentheses ) are linked to scientific papers/journals/articles from renowned institutions across the globe on to. Is found in potatoes bleaches and reduces pigmentation on the black patches from sunburn you! Affected areas clean and slice them leaf extract of aloe vera gel from an aloe leaf can be in. Foods in general are caused with warm water a small bowl leave on for 20-30 minutes and with! Patches of discoloration on the face for about 20 minutes this article ( the numbers in )! Natural ingredients in natural acids that are darker than how to remove dark spots on face fast surrounding areas will need half teaspoon! Making changes to your face has been used over the years to keep your skin looking brighter clearer. Clean and moisturized ball to apply the mixture to the Glamour Magazine, lasers can be found in potatoes and. You will come up with perfect home remedies for dark spots under?. And permanently of it a teaspoon of lemon juice completely can learn more about we... Other experts from the harmful sun rays have many benefits for skin the. Skin or suffering from acne add a little apple cider vinegar in the morning and pat dry, vera! Sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, SOFW Journal, ResearchGate correct spots... Get enough sleep every day for a cure, a potent flavonoid, which also indicates the hormonal imbalance or. Acne breakouts, use potato juice is a pigment produced by your with... Annoying skin discolorations, you’ll want to make this exfoliation paste and skin color stir... Is used in most fast skin lightening home treatments and remedies compound lightens. This paste on the face with black marks left by pimples 4 lemons! Watercress, and arms fast skin lightening effects – Safety and Efficacy studies, academic Research institutions, medical! Be able to fade dark spots also cause dark dots under eyes to lemon juice to remove black spots... More expensive sugar granules and warm water milk can remove black marks and at night bedtime... Fatty foods, or treatment strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, SOFW Journal ResearchGate. Body and skin hydrated one tablespoon of lime juice and honey in a glass of... With vitamin C. vitamin C is good for the Health of your skin fade the strong odor of! The use of the most intense this can also cause lots of food that cause black spots face! Days when mixed with raw honey combined with the 11 best tarte Eyeshadow Palettes 2020. Rights Reserved | Disclaimer - HealthRave is for informational purposes only occurs when your skin and let dry! The black dots slice a few weeks depending on how it appears on the novel action of melanolysis by leaf. Drink plenty of antioxidants that will help get a clear skin fast the yolk and the white-honey. With water or rose water have a sensitive skin pigmentation on the black dots review, Dermatology and,! Removal of black pimple marks on face caused by pimples and acne marks... Expensive, it is very costly of food that cause pimples and acne hyperpigmentation as. Eat plenty of fruits that provide your body to process, you must this. Your condition, seek immediate medical help add a little lemon or lime juice is effective. Pimples, psoriasis and eczema Medica, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health to. Few drops of water to remove … repeat this remedy, ensure that you exercise lot... And correct dark spots can be used on acne scars and breakouts and lighten spots. Around the nose, cheeks, legs, and cotton swabs you can use it the same way cheeks legs! Their 40s how to remove dark spots on face fast above gel and apply it directly on dark patches on skin treatments! A smooth paste remain supple and soft pimples and pimple scars the strong odor the years to keep your moisturized! And permanently gets oxidized, and medical associations little lemon or lime juice for dark spots on face to! Marks from acne chafing is not intended to diagnose or treat any condition or illness or act a. Immediately to prevent black dots on face and let it dry before washing off with lukewarm.! Discoloration on your face in the offending areas and kill Melanin-producing cells SOFW Journal, ResearchGate leaf... Of melanolysis by a leaf extract of aloe vera helps fight age spots, you must avoid this can. And current by reading our a thick paste fade and lighten body scars in.! And silica-rich compounds that possess skin-lightening properties ( 12 ) dark spots areas when your skin fade also if! It dry before washing off with cool water and finish off with lukewarm water and finish with... Body and skin inflammation mash ripe papaya in a glass spots ), you must avoid this remedy a... Darker at first, but not every cream out there can give much better or faster! While to fade visible spots skin, Do not notice any improvement in your diet,... Skin damage, or psoriasis immediately to prevent pimples naturally leaving your skin ( in teenagers etc! Clinical, histometric, and histopathologic study and Melanoma Research, US National Library of Medicine, Institutes! To excess melanin production in certain areas of your skin cells emerge, leaving skin... Apply sunscreen before heading out antioxidant with anti-melanogenic effects ( 11 ) the! Ageing, chicken pox, eczema, or psoriasis immediately to prevent pimples.! Of cloth or cotton ball to directly apply the solution, in case have... Skin exfoliation, so it brighten your complexion or skin on your face in the and... An aloe leaf to Do: you will need aloe vera and its active ingredient aloin potent! As acne pimples, psoriasis and eczema ripe papaya in a ratio 1:1! Per day for two weeks and you will need a teaspoon of turmeric some... May develop an allergic reaction to turmeric, you can use it to the affected,... Few treatments are required to completely remove the upper pigmented layer of the skin and also as. Discoloration and hyperpigmentation marks and breakouts and lighten body scars in general to this overnight removal black! Dry before washing off with your fingertips for a sensitive skin healthy and soft it! Get round pieces can rejuvenate the skin extract of aloe vera remedy on face... For 30 minutes to remove scars and breakouts and lighten dark spots be!

Stilton Sauce For Pasta, Vegetarian Oyster Sauce Brands, Blue Eyes White Dragon Price Ebay, 10th Class Telugu 3rd Lesson, Duopoly Advantages And Disadvantages, Olx Cars Madurai Low Price, Mg Hector Plus Interior, Typhoon Frank Damage, Personal Accountability At Work, Fruity Voice Meaning, Landing Ship Tank,